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SOCIAL   AND    POLITICAL    LIFE           169

chances at the official examinations for three years, and is good
ground for the resignation of a cabinet minister.

Family ethics interferes even with our travel and sport, for
the theory was developed in the Hsiaoking, or Classic of Filial
Piejty (which every schoolboy used to memorize), that "the
body, the hair and the skin are received from the parents and
may not be injured." Tsengtse, the great disciple of Confucius,
said on his deathbed, "Examine my hands, examine my feet,"
which had been kept intact to return to his forefathers. This
already borders on a religious feeling. It limits our travels, for
Confucius saida "A man does not travel to distant places when
his parents are living, and if he does he must have a definite
destination." The best form of travel, i.e., travel without
destination and without hoping to arrive anywhere, is there-
fore theoretically impossible. The filial son "does not climb
high, and does not tread on dangerous places." There is
therefore not a single filial son in the Alpine Club.

In short, the family system is the negation of individualism
itself, and it holds a man back, as the reins of the jockey hold
back the dashing Arabian horse. Sometimes the jockey is
good, and then he helps the horse to win the race, but some-
times he is not so good. Sometimes it is not a jockey that is
holding the horse back but merely a refuse cart. But then,
Chinese society has no use for fine Arabian thoroughbreds, the
best proof of which is that we have not produced them. We
murder them, assassinate them, hound them into the mountains,
or send them into the asylum. We want only steady, plodding
draught horses. And we get plenty of them.

The Doctrine of Social Status, as Confucianism has been
popularly called, is the social philosophy behind the family
system. It is the doctrine that makes for social order in China.
It is the principle of social structure and social control at the
same time. The principal idea is status, or mingfen, which
gives every man and woman a definite place in society. In
conformity with the humanist ideal of "everything in its
place," the social ideal is also that of "every man in his place."
Ming means "name," and/*/* means "duty." Confucianism is
actually known as mingchiao, or "religion of names." A name
is a title that gives a man his definite status in any society and